The Norwich University Office of Communications’ preferred style follows The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition (CMOS) and Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition. The Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual is used in the case of numerals. This guide, which is not intended as a replacement for a dictionary or more comprehensive style guide, presents preferred Norwich University style for questions not addressed directly in the CMOS, and for cases where we have chosen to deviate. The Norwich University Writing Style & Usage Guide is not a comprehensive document and certain departments may find it necessary to develop their own style for certain details. It is important, however, to maintain consistency and a grammatical foundation. When in doubt, look it up!

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

A

Abbreviations
When using abbreviations with lowercase letters, include the periods (a.k.a., etc., p.m.), but when writing acronyms and initialisms using capital letters, omit the periods (CGCS, URL, GI). Please note that there are exceptions C.V., U.S., U.K.

Academic degrees and titles

Academic degrees and titles are abbreviated without periods: BA, MA, PhD. The word “degree” should not follow an academic abbreviation; however, it is preferable to write out the full degree, lowercase, in text.

Reserve writing Dr. for persons with medical degrees (MD). Use Prof. for recipients of academic doctorates. Do not list credentials after a name except in formal usage, i.e. invitations, signatures, lists, etc. or for clarity. Formal titles should be capitalized and appear before a name.

    • Correct: She is seeking a master’s degree in diplomacy.
    • Correct: He holds a BA in history.
    • Correct: John Smith earned a bachelor of arts from Norwich University.
    • Incorrect: He holds a BA degree in history.
    • Ben Mallory; history Prof. Franklin Wayne, Vice President James Owen
    • Francis Gauthier, professor of history; Gerald Staller, vice president of Institutional Advancement (see Administrative Titles).

Academic divisions
See Colleges

Acronyms
Names of all offices, agencies and departments should be spelled out on first reference; acronyms may be used in subsequent references. Use capital letters, but no periods, for all acronyms. Enclose the acronym in parentheses rather than offset with commas or dashes after the first usage of the full name. In certain cases, an acronym may be used on first reference if it is easily recognizable to readers (NASA, NATO, the UN). When in doubt, write out the full name and follow with the acronym. To form the plural of an acronym, add a lowercase s (ICBMs).

  • Norwich University Corps of Cadets (NUCC)
  • Upper Parade Ground (UP)
  • College of Graduate and Continuing Studies (CGCS)
  • Bachelor of Science in Strategic Studies and Defense Analysis (BSSSDA)

Addresses
Abbreviate the words street (St.), avenue (Ave.), boulevard (Blvd.) and road (Rd.) when used with a numbered address. Similar words such as drive, alley, terrace and way are never abbreviated. When no number is given, spell these words out and capitalize the first letter. When referring to more than one street, avenue, road or boulevard, use lowercase. Always use numerals for an address number. Always spell out First through Ninth street names. Use numerals for 10th and above. Abbreviate east, west, north and south when a numbered address is given; spell them out when no numbered address is given.

  • Edgewood and Hawkins drives
  • 21 E. Hill Rd.
  • East Hill Road
  • 517 St. James Blvd.
  • St. James Boulevard
  • 217 Fifth Ave.
  • 301 10th Ave.

Administrative offices and departments
Capitalize the names of administrative departments and offices and the words department and office when used.

  • Department of Biology & Physical Education
  • Department of Physics
  • Department of Sports Medicine
  • Office of Alumni and Family Relations
  • Office of Communications
  • Registrar’s Office

Administrative Titles

Capitalize the title when it is being used as a title preceding a name; use lowercase when the title follows the name.

  • Correct – Norwich University President Richard Schneider
  • Incorrect – Richard Schneider, President of Norwich University
  • Correct – Richard Schneider, president of Norwich University
  • Correct – Dean of Students Martha Mathis
  • Correct – Martha Mathis, dean of students

Alumni
Identify alumni using the name followed, without comma, by the year of graduation. Omit the century designation and use a convex apostrophe. If a person holds more than one degree, place an ampersand between the class years.

  • Katherine MacDonald ’92
  • Christina Smith ’56 & M ’62
  • Alum — masculine/feminine singular
  • Alumnus—masculine singular
  • Alumna — feminine singular
  • Alumnae — feminine plural
  • Alumni — masculine and/or feminine plural
  • Alums — masculine and/or feminine plural

Ampersand

Use ampersands only when part of an official name, such as Stop & Shop. In other instances, replace the ampersand with the word “and.” Norwich colleges use the word “and” (College of Science and Mathematics), while schools and departments use the ampersand (School of Business & Management). The School of Architecture + Art uses the “+” sign.

Attribution

When quoting an individual, place “said or “says” after the individual’s name. Example: “Lions are the most majestic of all earthly creatures,” Karen says. To see the logic of this style choice, replace the name with a pronoun. The attribution should mimic our natural speech patterns. We’re far more likely to say, “she says” than “says she.”

  • Exception: In cases where the speaker has a long title, it is acceptable to place “said” before the name and title: “Lions are the most majestic of all earthly creatures,” says Karen Hinkle, professor of biology and assistant dean of the College of Science and Mathematics.

“Said” is king. It is tempting, for variety, to try to find synonyms, but the magic of “said” is that it passes no judgment. Words like “bellowed,” “barked,” “posited,” and even more benign words like “expressed,” may insert a meaning into the quote that the speaker didn’t intend. Although these may be used in some instances, be judicious.

B

Board of Trustees
Capitalize Board of Trustees and Trustee when used as a title before a name. Use “the board” or “trustees” in subsequent references.

Buildings
On first reference use the official name of all campus facilities. In subsequent references you may use the appropriate shortened designations. Do not use building, hall and center interchangeably.

  • Jackman Hall is located at the top of the UP. The hall was constructed in 1965.

C

Cadet

The word cadet is capitalized when used as a title or when referring to Norwich’s athletics teams, but lowercased when used as a general term.

  • During class Cadet Miller spoke her mind.
  • The Cadets defeated the Catamounts, 54 to 3.
  • As cadets, new students face many challenges.

Centennial Stairs
Capitalize in all usages. On second reference, “the staircase” is acceptable.

Class of ’59 Bridge
Capitalize in all usages. On second reference, “the bridge” is acceptable.

Classes and Courses

Capitalize classes and courses only when using the actual course title.

  • I am taking a mathematics class and an engineering course.
  • I am taking Introduction to Biology and Drawing I this semester.

Colleges, Schools, Departments, Programs
Capitalize the names of colleges, schools, departments and programs and the words school, department, program and office when paired with a modifier, e.g. Athletics Department, Career Development Office.

List of colleges:

  • College of Graduate and Continuing Studies (CGCS is acceptable on subsequent references)
  • College of Liberal Arts
  • College of National Services
  • College of Professional Schools
  • College of Science and Mathematics

List of schools: (Within each school there are programs overseen by departments, example: Biology & Physical Education Program or Department of Biology & Physical Education)

  • David Crawford School of Engineering
  • School of Architecture + Art
  • School of Business & Management
  • School of Justice Studies & Sociology
  • School of Nursing

Commencement

Capitalize with the year when writing about Norwich University’s annual event or any other specific commencement. Use lowercase in other references.

  • The 2018 Commencement is scheduled for Saturday.
  • Norwich has asked President Donald Trump to be its commencement speaker this year.

Committees, Councils and Clubs

Capitalize the names of committees, councils and clubs on the first reference.

  • We are members of the Diversity Council. Our council works on issues related to diversity.

Corps of Cadets
In first usage, write out Corps of Cadets. In second references Corps is acceptable.

Courtesy titles
Use a person’s first and last name without Mr., Mrs., Ms. or Miss. Use courtesy titles only in a direct quote. Exception: In the case of an invitation or formal address.

D

Dates
Dates are written in the month, day, year format with commas following the day and year. Include the year in written dates (Sept. 16, 2006, not Sept. 16). Use cardinal numbers in the month day, year, format; ordinal numbers are acceptable when only the day is being referenced. Abbreviate months if the full date is used; spell out months if they stand alone. The months of March, April, May, June and July are never abbreviated. When referring to a specific month, include the year but eliminate the commas. Holidays are capitalized.

  • Many events occur on campus in September.
  • On the fifth, the cadets perform drill exercises on the UP.
  • The Cadets will play the Badgers on Saturday, Sept. 30, 2017.
  • February 2016 was a challenging month for me.
  • I’ll see you on the Fourth of July.

Directions and Regions
When used for compass directions, use lowercase for north, south, east, west and all combinations of these words, i.e. northeast, southeast, southwest, and such. Use capitals when referring to U.S. regions.

  • We went up Route 14 to northern Vermont.
  • Forecasters predict severe storms across the Midwest and Northeast in the upcoming days.

E

Emeritus

The word “emeritus” should follow a person’s formal title and be capitalized when occurring before a person’ name.

  • Forms
    Use “emeritus” for singular masculine and gender-neutral references, and “emeriti” for masculine and gender-neutral plurals. “Emerita” is the feminine singular, and “emeritae” is the feminine plural.

    • Professor Emeritus Eugene Sevi
    • Anita Ristau, professor emerita

Events
Capitalize all formal events such as Junior Ring Weekend, Homecoming Weekend, Convocation, Abare Rook Dining Out, etc.

H

Headlines

Capitalize each major word, including nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinating conjunctions; articles (a, the) and coordinating conjunctions (but, for) are lowercase.

  • Correct: Norwich University Donates $10 Million for Northfield Revitalization
  • Incorrect: Norwich University donates $10 million for Northfield revitalization

The Hill

When used to describe Norwich University, lowercase “the” and capitalize “Hill” (do not enclose in quotation marks).

  • Life on the Hill brings back memories for many alumni.

M

Majors and minors

Use lowercase for majors, minors, concentrations and specializations unless they are part of a designated degree title; languages are always capitalized.

  • A mathematics major with a concentration in statistics, Sarah will graduate in May 2017.
  • Eric received a bachelor of arts in history.
  • Eric received a bachelor of arts in English.
  • Katie completed a bachelor of science in Chinese with a minor in history.
  • She is completing a program in teacher licensure.
  • She is enrolled in the Teacher Licensure Program.

Measurements

Use numerals and spell out all measurement/dimension specific words such as inches, feet, yards, and meters. Use hyphens when used as an adjective before a noun.

  • The 5-foot, 7-inch junior running back.
  • The carillon tower is 25 feet tall.

Use the abbreviation “lbs” for pounds, no period.

  • The heaviest bell in the Norwich carillon is 3,500 lbs, which is five times heavier than the lightest.

Military College of Vermont

Norwich University, in reference to designation by the Vermont Legislature, should use the phrase, “Military College of the State of Vermont,” as a second title, where appropriate, but should avoid title-style capitalization in general usage within the body of a document. As a subtitle, it is most effective when used on a second line.

Correct

  • Norwich University
  • Military College of the State of Vermont [or, Military College of Vermont]

Incorrect

  • Norwich University, the Military College of the State of Vermont, has been awarded…

The acronym MCV should be used only in a document discussing the Legislature’s designation, and after the acronym is explained in the first reference.

Correct

  • The Legislature first addressed a motion to have Norwich University recognized as the Military College of Vermont (MCV) in the year…

Incorrect

  • Norwich University MCV trustees voted today …

Military titles

Although the different military branches use their own abbreviations to signify rank and position, Norwich uses AP style to maintain consistency and clarity for non-military readers (consistent with the style used by the U.S. Department of Defense.) Use the abbreviations below for communications addressed to the public and university community. Be sure to specify the correct military branch before the title.

Each branch of service has specific abbreviations and styles, which may be used when the audience is military, in the Norwich Record, and in circumstances that require a personal touch. Examples may include person-to-person correspondence, formal invitations, accolades and published letters from alumni. The U.S. Department of Defense publishes instruction on correct military rank abbreviations (found here, and also reproduced at bottom of section.)

When in doubt, AP Style is preferable for clarity.

 

*AP Style Army Commissioned Officers

  • General – Gen.
  • Lieutenant General – Lt. Gen.
  • Major General – Maj. Gen.
  • Brigadier General – Brig. Gen.
  • Colonel – Col.
  • Lieutenant Colonel – Lt. Col.
  • Major – Maj.
  • Captain – Capt.
  • First Lieutenant – 1st Lt.
  • Second Lieutenant – 2nd Lt.

Warrant Officers

  • Chief Warrant Officer – Chief Warrant Officer
  • Warrant Officer – Warrant Officer

Enlisted Personnel

  • Sergeant Major of the Army – Sgt. Maj. of the Army
  • Command Sergeant Major – Command Sgt. Maj.
  • Sergeant Major – Sgt.Maj.
  • First Sergeant – 1st Sgt.
  • Master Sergeant – Master Sgt.
  • Sergeant First Class – Sgt. 1st Class
  • Staff Sergeant – Staff Sgt.
  • Sergeant – Sgt.
  • Corporal – Cpl.
  • Specialist – Spc.
  • Private First Class – Pfc.
  • Private – Pvt.

 

* AP Style Navy and Coast Guard

Commissioned Officers

  • Admiral – Adm.
  • Vice Admiral – Vice Adm.
  • Rear Admiral (upper and lower half) – Rear Adm.
  • Captain – Capt.
  • Commander – Cmdr.
  • Lieutenant Commander – Lt. Cmdr.
  • Lieutenant – Lt.
  • Lieutenant Junior Grade – Lt. j.g.
  • Ensign – Ensign

Warrant Officers

  • Chief Warrant Officer – Chief Warrant Officer
  • Warrant Officer – Warrant Officer

Enlisted Personnel

  • Master Chief – Master Chief
  • Petty Officer of the Navy – Petty Officer of the Navy
  • Senior Chief Petty Officer – Senior Chief Petty Officer
  • Chief Petty Officer – Chief Petty Officer
  • Petty Officer First Class – Petty Officer 1st Class
  • Petty Officer Second Class – Petty Officer 2nd Class
  • Petty Officer Third Class – Petty Officer 3rd Class
  • Seaman – Seaman
  • Seaman Apprentice – Seaman Apprentice
  • Seaman Recruit – Seaman Recruit

 

* AP Style Marine Corps

Commissioned Officers
Same as those used for the Army

Warrant Officers
Same as those used for the Navy

Enlisted Personnel

  • Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps – Sgt. Maj. of the Marine Corps
  • Master Gunnery Sergeant – Master Gunnery Sgt.
  • Master Sergeant – Master Sgt.
  • First Sergeant – 1st Sgt.
  • Gunnery Sergeant – Gunnery Sgt.
  • Staff Sergeant – Staff Sgt.
  • Corporal – Cpl.
  • Lance Corporal – Lance Cpl.
  • Private First Class – Pfc.
  • Private – Pvt.

 

* AP Style Air Force

Commissioned Officers
Same as those used for the Army

Enlisted Personnel

  • Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force – Chief Master Sgt. of the Air Force
  • Chief Master Sergeant – Chief Master Sgt.
  • Senior Master Sergeant – Senior Master Sgt.
  • Technical Sergeant – Tech. Sgt.
  • Staff Sergeant – Staff Sgt.
  • Sergeant – Sgt.
  • Senior Airman – Senior Airman
  • Airman First Class – Airman 1st Class
  • Airman – Airman
  • Airman Basic – Airman

 

Plurals – Add “s” to the principal element in the title: Sgts. Bilco and Slaughter
Retired – When using AP Style, do not use the military abbreviation for retired military officers (Ret.). Instead, use retired before the officer’s title. Example: Retired Army Gen. Jim Baker attended the event.

As with all titles, capitalize when used before a name and lowercase in other references. Generally, use the formal title in the first reference for all active members of the military, and their surname in subsequent references.

Examples of AP Style of military ranks, i.e. when used to the public or university community:

  • Army Lt. Col. Boris Schmeckis arrived yesterday.
    The captain reported to the lieutenant colonel.
    Schmeckis, a former lieutenant colonel in the Army, arrived yesterday

U.S. Department of Defense: Military Abbreviations

*Dept. Of Defense:  Army

Commissioned Officers

  • General- GEN
  • Lieutenant General-LTG
  • Major General- MG
  • Brigadier General- BG
  • Colonel- COL
  • Lieutenant Colonel- LTC
  • Major- MAJ
  • Captain- CPT
  • First Lieutenant- 1LT
  • Second Lieutenant- 2LT

Warrant Officers

  • Chief Warrant Officer- CW5
  • Chief Warrant Officer 4- CW4
  • Chief Warrant Officer 3- CW3
  • Chief Warrant Officer 2- CW2
  • Warrant Officer 1- WO1

Enlisted Personnel

  • Sergeant Major of the Army-SMA
  • Command Sergeant Major- CSM
  • Sergeant Major- SGM
  • First Sergeant- 1SG
  • Master Sergeant- MSG
  • Sergeant First Class- SFC
  • Staff Sergeant- SSG
  • Sergeant- SGT
  • Corporal- CPL
  • Specialist- SPC
  • Private First Class- PFC
  • Private-nPV2
  • Private (no insignia)- PV1

Examples:

  • PFC John Smith, USA
  • LTC Jane Doe, USA (Ret.)
  • SGT Robert Jones, USAR (Ret.)
  • COL Adam Johnson, VTARNG

*Dept. Of Defense:  Navy

Commissioned Officers

  • Admiral- ADM
  • Vice Admiral- VADM
  • Rear Admiral (upper half)- RADM
  • Rear Admiral (lower half)- RDML
  • Captain- CAPT
  • Commander- CDR
  • Lieutenant Commander- LCDR
  • Lieutenant- LT
  • Lieutenant Junior Grade- LTJG
  • Ensign- ENS

Warrant Officers

  • Chief Warrant Officer 5- CWO5
  • Chief Warrant Officer 4- CWO4
  • Chief Warrant Officer 3- CWO3
  • Chief Warrant Officer 2- CWO2
  • Warrant Officer- WO1

Enlisted Personnel

  • Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy- MCPO N
  • Master Chief Petty Officer- MCPO
  • Senior Chief Petty Officer- SCPO
  • Chief Petty Officer- CPO
  • Petty Officer 1st Class- PO1
  • Petty Officer 2nd Class- PO2
  • Petty Officer 3rd Class- PO3
  • Seaman- SN
  • Seaman Apprentice- SA
  • Seaman Recruit- SR

 

Examples:

  • CPO John Smith, USN
  • CAPT Jane Doe, USN (Ret.)
  • MCPO Robert Jones, USNR (Ret.)

*Dept. Of Defense:  Marine Corps

Commissioned Officers

  • General- Gen
  • Lieutenant General- LtGen
  • Major General- MGen
  • Brigadier General- BGen
  • Colonel- Col
  • Lieutenant Colonel- LtCol
  • Major- Maj
  • Captain- Capt
  • First Lieutenant- 1stLt
  • Second Lieutenant- 2ndLt

Warrant Officers

  • Chief Warrant Officer 5- CWO5
  • Chief Warrant Officer 4- CWO4
  • Chief Warrant Officer 3- CWO3
  • Chief Warrant Officer 2- CWO2
  • Warrant Officer 1- WO

Enlisted Personnel

  • Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps- SgtMaj MC
  • Sergeant Major- SgtMaj
  • Master Gunnery Sergeant- MGySgtFirst Sergeant- 1stSgt
  • Master Sergeant- MSgt
  • Gunnery Sergeant- GySgt
  • Staff Sergeant- SSgt
  • Sergeant- Sgt
  • Corporal-Cpl
  • Lance Corporal- LCpl
  • Private First Class- PFC
  • Private (no insignia)- Pvt

Examples:

  • LCpl John Smith, USMC
  • Col Jane Doe, USMC (Ret.)
  • MGySgt Robert Jones, USMCR (Ret.)

*Dept. Of Defense:  Air Force

Commissioned Officers

  • General- Gen
  • Lieutenant General- Lt Gen
  • Major General- Maj Gen
  • Brigadier General- Brig Gen
  • Colonel- Col
  • Lieutenant Colonel- Lt Col
  • Major- Maj
  • Captain- Capt
  • First Lieutenant- 1stLt
  • Second Lieutenant- 2dLt

Enlisted Personnel

  • Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force- CMSAF
  • Command Chief Master Sergeant- CCM
  • Chief Master Sergeant- CMSgt
  • Senior Master Sergeant- SMSgt
  • First Sergeant- 1stSgt
  • Master Sergeant- MSgt
  • First Sergeant- 1stSgt
  • Technical Sergeant- TSgt
  • Staff Sergeant- SSgt
  • Senior Airman- SrA
  • Airman First Class- A1C
  • Airman- Amn
  • Airman Basic- AB

Examples:

  • MSgt John Smith, USAF
  • Brig Gen Jane Doe, USAF (Ret.)
  • 1stSgt Robert Jones, USAFR
  • Maj Jessica Smith, VTANG

*Dept. Of Homeland Security:  Coast Guard

(Note: for current Coast Guard rank abbreviations online, visit this link)

Commissioned Officers

  • Admiral- ADM
  • Vice Admiral- VADM
  • Rear Admiral, Upper Half- RADM
  • Rear Admiral, Lower Half- RDML
  • Captain- CAPT
  • Commander- CDR
  • Lieutenant Commander- LCDR
  • Lieutenant- LT
  • Lieutenant, Junior Grade- LTJG
  • Ensign- ENS

Warrant Officers

  • Chief Warrant Officer-CWO4
  • Chief Warrant Officer- CWO3
  • Chief Warrant Officer- CWO2

Enlisted Personnel

  • Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard- MCPOCG
  • Command Master Chief Petty Officer- CMC
  • Master Chief Petty Officer- MCPO
  • Senior Chief Petty Officer- SCPO
  • Chief Petty Officer- CPO
  • Petty Officer 1st Class -PO1
  • Petty Officer 2nd Class -PO2
  • Petty Officer 3rd Class -PO3
  • Airman- SN
  • Fireman- SN
  • Seaman- SN
  • Airman Apprentice – SN
  • Fireman Apprentice – SN
  • Seaman Apprentice – SN
  • Airman Recruit – SN
  • Fireman Recruit – SN
  • Seaman Recruit – SN

Examples:

  • MCPO John Smith, USCG
  • RDML Jane Doe, USCG (Ret.)
  • ENS Robert Jones, USCGR

Money

Use the dollar sign and numbers. For round numbers, the decimal and zeros are dropped. For amounts beyond thousands, use the dollar sign, number and appropriate word. Do not add the word “dollars” after the numbers. Spell out “cents” when writing amounts under $1.

  • 25 cents
  • $25
  • $25.50
  • $10 million
  • $1.6 million

N

Numbers
Spell out whole numbers less than 10 and any number beginning a sentence. Use numerals for whole numbers 10 and greater, sporting event scores, ages, credits/credit hours, dimensions and measurements. When several numbers occur in within a paragraph or series of paragraphs, maintain consistency in the immediate context (example: The room had four civilian students and twelve cadets inside.)

  • Seventy-five cadets ran across campus.
  • There are 1,000 dogs running wild on the campus.
  • Eighteen nineteen was marked by the founding of Norwich University.
  • The year 1819 was marked by the founding of Norwich University.
  • The Cadets defeated the Catamounts, 54 to 3.

Casual use: Spell out casual expressions:

  • The UP is about a quarter of a mile from here.
  • I can think of a million reasons not to do that.

Large numbers: When large numbers must be spelled out, use a hyphen to connect a word ending in “y” to another word; do not use commas between other separate words that are part of one number:

  • twenty
  • twenty-one
  • one hundred fifty-seven
  • one thousand one hundred fifty-seven

Use commas in numerals larger than 999, i.e. 2,500, etc.

P

Possessives

  • Plural nouns not ending in S: Add ’s — The women’s choir, the alumni’s gifts
  • Plural nouns ending in S: Add only an apostrophe — The horses’ hoofs, the kids’ play area
  • Singular nouns not ending in S: Add ’s — The boy’s chair, the woman’s hat. For words ending in sounds similar to “s,” use ’s: box’s capacity, the justice’s orders
  • Singular common nouns ending in S: Add ’s unless the following word begins with the “s” sound — The hostess’s cupcakes, the hostess’ sweater
  • Singular proper names ending in S: Add only an apostrophe — Confucius’ teachings, Hank Williams’ songs
  • Joint/individual possession: Use the possessive after the last word if the object is jointly owned — Jay and Dave’s office, Mark and Mark’s donuts

Use the possessive form in both words if the objects are individually owned—Ben’s and Julie’s books, Kara’s and Felicia’s tests.

Professor

Capitalize and abbreviate the title when used as a title preceding a name; use lowercase and spell out when the title follows the name.

See also Academic Degrees and Titles.

  • Incorrect: Jack Johnson, Professor of mathematics, was at the meeting.
  • Incorrect: They were introduced by Professor Jack Johnson.
  • Correct: Jack Johnson, professor of mathematics, was at the meeting.
  • Correct: They were introduced by Prof. Jack Johnson.

R

Recruit

Recruit is the title used for rooks before they have been recognized. In use it is usually abbreviated.

  • Example: Rct. Jones walked in the gutter. 

Republic

Capitalize Republic when referring to the United States. 

Rook
Lowercase: The rooks were called to attention.

Rook Week
Capitalize this event.

Room names
Capitalize formal room names: Board of Trustees Room, Galloway Room

S

Seasons of the year
Lowercase in general usage.

Serial commas
Do not use serial commas (or the “Oxford comma”) before the final item in a series except when clarity dictates usage.

Note: The Norwich Record does use the serial comma.

  • Incorrect: Dave went to The Mill for coffee, cookies, and sundries.
  • Correct: Dave went to The Mill for coffee, cookies and sundries

Spaces

Use single spaces following punctuation such as periods, question marks, colons, etc. The double space format, initially used in the time of typewriters, is now obsolete.

States and Territories

The names of U.S. states, territories and possessions are spelled out when standing alone. When following the name of a town or city, use the formal abbreviations, i.e. Massachusetts—Mass., Vermont—Vt. The capitalized two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviations should only be used when a full mailing address is provided. Alaska, Hawaii, Iowa, Idaho, Maine, Ohio and Utah are never abbreviated except when used in mailing addresses.

List of US states and abbreviations

AK — Alaska
AL — Alabama — Ala.
AR — Arkansas — Ark.
AS — American Samoa
AZ — Arizona — Ariz.
CA — California — Calif.
CO — Colorado — Colo.
CT — Connecticut — Conn.
DC — Washington D.C.
DE — Delaware — Del.
FL — Florida — Fla.
GA — Georgia — Ga.
GU — Guam
HI — Hawaii
IA — Iowa
ID — Idaho
IL — Illinois — Ill.
IN — Indiana — Ind.

KS — Kansas — Kans.
KY — Kentucky — Ky.
LA — Louisiana — La.
MA — Massachusetts — Mass.
MD — Maryland — Md.
ME — Maine
MI — Michigan — Mich.
MN — Minnesota — Minn.
MO — Missouri — Mo.
MS — Mississippi — Miss.
MT — Montana — Mont.
NC — North Carolina — N.C.
ND — North Dakota — N.D.
NE — Nebraska — Nebr.
NH — New Hampshire — N.H.
NJ — New Jersey — N.J.
NM — New Mexico — N.Mex.
NV — Nevada — Nev.
NY — New York — N.Y.
OH — Ohio
OK — Oklahoma — Okla.
OR — Oregon — Oreg.
PA — Pennsylvania — Pa.
PR — Puerto Rico — P.R.
RI — Rhode Island — R.I.
SC — South Carolina — S.C.
SD — South Dakota — S.D.
TN — Tennessee — Tenn.
TX — Texas — Tex.
UT — Utah
VA — Virginia — Va.
VI — Virgin Islands — V.I.
VT — Vermont — Vt.
WA — Washington — Wash.
WI — Wisconsin — Wisc.
WV — West Virginia — W.Va.
WY — Wyoming — Wyo.

List of cities that can stand alone:

    • Atlanta
    • Baltimore
    • Boston
    • Chicago
    • Cincinnati
    • Cleveland
    • Dallas
    • Denver
    • Detroit
    • Honolulu
    • Houston
    • Las Vegas
    • Los Angeles
    • Miami
    • Milwaukee
    • Minneapolis
    • New Orleans
    • New York
    • Oklahoma City
    • Philadelphia
    • Phoenix
    • Pittsburgh
    • St. Louis
    • Salt Lake City
    • San Antonio
    • San Diego
    • San Francisco
    • Seattle
    • Washington

Student Classifications

Use first-year student instead of freshman. Do not capitalize first-year student, sophomore, junior or senior. When referring to a specific class, capitalize “Class” and use an apostrophe in place of the century; Class of ’08, Class of ’56. When referring to classes from 1920 or earlier, use the full year: Class of 1898, Class of 1912.

T

Time

Time designation should be written in 12-hour format with a.m. or p.m. as the morning/afternoon indicator. Do not use AM, PM, A.M. or P.M. If the time falls on the hour, the colon and zeros can be omitted. Use noon or midnight without the 12 before instead of 12 p.m. and 12 a.m. Avoid redundancies such as 8 a.m. in the morning. The Corps of Cadets should continue to use the 24-hour format in Corps-specific communications.

  • 4:30 p.m.
  • 4 p.m.
  • 1600 hours

Time, Date & Location

Generally list in this order: 10 a.m. Monday, June 24, 2013, Jackman Hall (provide a street address if intended for an external audience). For invitations, you may want to put the time at the end: Monday, June 24, 2013, at 4 o’clock.

Titles
Italicize the titles of books, magazines, newspapers, plays, paintings, and other complete works. Parts of the works, such as chapters and articles, are enclosed in quotes. Names of websites are capitalized without quotes or italics.

  • The Office of Communications follows The Chicago Manual of Style and relies on “Section 15” for guidelines governing abbreviations and acronyms.
  • The Handbook of Common English Usage includes an essay, “Just what the heck are these commas for, anyway?” by Norwich Prof. Hortense Alphonse.

Titles (Individuals)
See “Administrative Titles.”

U

University
Capitalize only in formal usage.

Note: The Norwich Record is an exception to this rule.

  • Norwich University is located in Northfield, Vt. It is a university with a military history.

W

Web addresses
It is not necessary to include the http://www. when writing web addresses. Rather, use norwich.edu.

Web specific terms

  • Email is one word and should not be capitalized unless used at the start of a sentence.
  • Homepage is one word and should not be capitalized unless at the start of a sentence.
  • HTML and other computer languages (XML, Perl, Java) are capitalized both in acronym form or spelled out, Hypertext Markup Language.
  • Internet is a proper noun and is capitalized. “The web” may be used informally, and should not be capitalized.
  • Online is one word and should not capitalized unless at the start of a sentence.
  • Podcast is one word and should not capitalized unless at the start of a sentence.
  • World Wide Web is a proper noun and is capitalized. Although the word web is often used as shorthand for the World Wide Web, context usually clarifies it’s meaning and therefore capitalization is not necessary.
  • Website is one word and should not capitalized unless it is used at the start of a sentence.
  • Web page is two words, both lowercased unless used at the beginning of a sentence.
  • Webcast is one word and should not capitalized unless used at the start of a sentence.
  • Webcam is one word and should not capitalized unless used at the start of a sentence.
  • Weblog is one word and lowercase. Preferred use is blog.