The Norwich University Office of Communications’ preferred style follows The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition (CMOS) and Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition and the Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual in the case of numerals. This guide, which is not intended as a replacement for a dictionary or more comprehensive style guide, presents preferred Norwich University style for questions not addressed directly in the CMOS, and for cases where we have chosen to deviate. The Norwich University Style & Usage Guide is not a comprehensive document and certain departments may find it necessary to develop their own style for certain details. It is important, however, to maintain consistency and a grammatical foundation. When in doubt, look it up!

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

A

Abbreviations
When using abbreviations with lowercase letters, include the periods (a.k.a., etc., p.m.), but when writing acronyms and initialisms using capital letters, omit the periods.

Academic degrees and titles
Academic degrees and titles are abbreviated without periods; BA, MA, PhD. The word degree should not follow an academic abbreviation, however, it is preferable to write out the full degree, lowercase, in text.

  • Correct: She is seeking a master’s degree in diplomacy.
  • Correct: He holds a BA in history.
  • Correct: John Smith earned a bachelor of arts from Norwich University.
  • Incorrect: He holds a BA degree in history.
  • Reserve Dr. for medical doctors. Use Prof. for recipients of academic doctorates. Do not list credentials after a name except in formal usage, i.e. invitations, lists, etc. Formal titles should be capitalized and appear before a name.
  • Prof. Ben Mallory; history Prof. Franklin Wayne, Vice President James Owen
  • Francis Gauthier, professor of history; Gerald Staller, vice president of Institutional Advancement

Academic divisions
See Colleges

Acronyms
Names of all offices, agencies and departments should be spelled out on first reference; acronyms may be used in subsequent references. Use capital letters, but no periods, for all acronyms. Enclose the acronym in parentheses rather than offset with commas or dashes after the first usage of the full name. In certain cases, an acronym may be used on first reference if it is easily recognizable to readers (NASA, NATO, the UN). When in doubt, write out the full name and follow with the acronym. To form the plural of an acronym, add a lowercase s (ICBMs).

  • Norwich University Corps of Cadets (NUCC)
  • Upper Parade Ground (UP)

Addresses
Abbreviate the words street (St.), avenue (Ave.), boulevard (Blvd.) and road (Rd.) when used with a numbered address. Similar words such as drive, alley, terrace and way are never abbreviated. When no number is given, spell these words out and capitalize the first letter. When referring to more than one street, avenue, road or boulevard, use lowercase. Always use figures for an address number. Always spell out First through Ninth street names. Use numerals for 10th and above. Abbreviate east, west, north and south when a numbered address is given; spell them out when no numbered address is given.

  • Edgewood and Hawkins drives
  • 21 E. Hill Rd.
  • East Hill Road
  • 517 St. James Blvd.
  • St. James Boulevard
  • 217 Fifth Ave.
  • 301 10th Ave.

Administrative offices and departments
Capitalize the names of administrative departments and offices and the words department and office when used.

Administrative titles
Capitalize the title when it is being used as a title preceding a name; use lowercase when the title follows the name.

  • Incorrect – Richard Schneider, President of Norwich University
  • Correct – Norwich University President Richard Schneider
  • Correct – Richard Schneider, president of Norwich University

Alumni
Identify alumni using the using the name followed, without comma, by the year of graduation. Omit the century designation and use a reversed apostrophe. If a person holds more than one degree, place a comma between the class years.

  • Katherine MacDonald ’92
  • Christina Smith ’56, MA ’62
  • Alum — masculine/feminine singular
  • Alumna — feminine singular
  • Alumnae — feminine plural
  • Alumni — masculine and/or feminine plural
  • Alums — masculine and/or feminine plural

Ampersand
Use ampersands only when part of an official name, such as Stop & Shop. In other instances, replace the ampersand with the word “and.” Norwich colleges use the word “and” (College of Science and Mathematics), while schools and departments use the ampersand (School of Business & Management). The School of Architecture + Art utilizes the “+” sign.

Attribution
In cases where the speaker has a long title, it is acceptable to place “said” before the name and title. Avoid using other words to attribute a quote, i.e. bellowed, barked or posited. Although these may be used in some instances, be judicious.

B

Board of Trustees
Capitalize Board of Trustees and Trustee when used as a title before a name. Use “the board” or “trustees” in subsequent references.

Buildings
On first reference use the official name of all campus facilities. In subsequent references you may use the appropriate shortened designations. Do not use building, hall and center interchangeably.

  • Jackman Hall is located at the top of the UP. The hall was constructed in the 1970s

List of campus facilities:

Adams Tower
Ainsworth Hall
Alumni Hall
Alumni Center
Andrews Hall
Bartoletto Hall (also known as the Engineering, Math and Science Complex)
Cabot Annex
Cenntenial Stairs, The
Chaplin Hall
Communications Building
Crawford Hall
Dewey Hall
Disney Field
Dodge Hall
Doyle Hall
Engineering, Math and Science Complex
Flint Hall
Garrison House
Garrity Field
Gerard Hall
Goodyear Hall
Goodyear Pool
Harmon Hall
Hawkins Hall
Hayden Building
Hollis House
Howard Field
Jackman Hall
Juckett Hall
Kreitzberg Arena
Kreitzberg Library
Marsilius Hall
Partridge Hall
Patterson Hall
Plumley Armory
Ransom Hall
Roberts Hall
Rugby Field
Sabine Field
Shapiro Field House
Sullivan Museum and History Center, The
Tompkins Hall
Upper Parade Ground, The
Webb Hall
White Chapel
Wilson Hall
Wise Campus Center
Woodbury Hall

C

Cadet
The word cadet is capitalized when used as a title or when referring to Norwich’s athletics teams, but lowercased when used as a general term.

  • During class Cadet Miller spoke her mind.
  • The Cadets defeated the Catamounts, 54 to 3.
  • As a cadet, new students face many challenges.

Centennial Stairs
Capitalize in all usages. On second reference, the staircase is acceptable.

Class of ’59 Bridge
Capitalize in all usages. On second reference, the bridge is acceptable.

Classes and courses
Capitalize classes and courses only when using the actual course title.

  • I am taking a mathematics class and an engineering course.
  • I am taking Introduction to Biology and Drawing I this semester.

Colleges, schools, departments, programs
Capitalize the names of colleges, schools, departments and programs and the words school, department, program and office when paired with an academic discipline.

List of colleges:

  • College of Graduate and Continuing Studies (CGCS is acceptable on subsequent references)
  • College of Liberal Arts
  • College of National Services
  • College of Professional Schools
  • College of Science and Mathematics

List of schools: (Within each school there are programs overseen by departments, example: Biology & Physical Education Program or Department of Biology & Physical Education)

  • David Crawford School of Engineering
  • School of Architecture + Art
  • School of Business & Management
  • School of Justice Studies & Sociology
  • School of Nursing

Commencement
Capitalize with the year when writing about Norwich University’s annual event or any other specific commencement. Use lowercase in other references.

  • The 2013 Commencement is scheduled for Saturday.
  • Norwich has asked President Barack Obama to be its commencement speaker this year.

Committees, councils and clubs
Capitalize the names of committees, councils and clubs on the first reference.

  • We are members of the Diversity Council. Our council works on issues related to diversity

Corps of Cadets
In first usage, write out Corps of Cadets. In second references Corps is acceptable.

Courtesy titles
Use a person’s first and last name without Mr., Mrs., Ms. or Miss. Use courtesy titles only in a direct quote.

D

Dates
Dates are written in the month, day, year format with commas following the day and year. Always include the year in written dates (Sept. 16, 2006, not Sept. 16). Use cardinal numbers in the month day, year, format; ordinal numbers are acceptable when only the day is being referenced. Abbreviate months if the full date is used; spell out months if they stand alone. The months of March, April, May, June and July are never abbreviated.When referring to a specific month, include the year but eliminate the commas. Holidays are capitalized.

  • Many events occur on campus in September.
  • On the fifth, the cadets perform drill exercises on the UP.
  • The Cadets will play the Badgers on Saturday, Sept. 30, 2006.
  • February 2011 was a challenging month for me.
  • I’ll see you on the Fourth of July.

Directions and regions
When used for compass directions, use lowercase for north, south, east, west and all combinations of these words, i.e. northeast, southeast, southwest, and such. Use capitals when referring to US regions.

  • We went up Route 14 to northern Vermont.
  • Forecasters predict severe storms across the Midwest and Northeast in the upcoming days.

E

Emeritus
The word emeritus should follow a person’s formal title and be capitalized when occurring before a person’ name. Use emeriti for plural.

  • Professor Emeritus Eric Estrada
  • Eric Estrada, professor emeritus

Events
Capitalize all formal events such as Junior Ring Weekend, Homecoming Weekend, Abare Rook Dining Out, etc.

H

Headlines
Capitalize the first word and proper nouns in article and story headlines. Do not capitalize the first letter of every word.

  • Incorrect: Norwich University Donates $10 Million for Northfield Revitalization
  • Correct: Norwich University donates $10 million for Northfield revitalization

The Hill
When used to describe Norwich University, capitalize The Hill and do not enclose in quotation marks.

  • Life on The Hill brings back memories for many alumni.

M

Majors and minors
Use lowercase for majors, minors, concentrations and specializations unless they are part of a designated degree title.

  • Eric received a bachelor of arts in history.
  • Eric received a bachelor of arts in English.
  • She is completing a program in teacher licensure.
  • She is enrolled in the Teacher Licensure Program.

Measurements
Use numerals and spell out all measurement/dimension specific words such as inches, feet, yards, and meters. Use hyphens when used as an adjective before a noun.

  • The 5-foot, 7-inch junior running back.
  • The carillon tower is 25 feet tall.

Military College of Vermont
Norwich University, in reference to designation by the Vermont Legislature, should use the phrase, “Military College of the State of Vermont,” as a second title, where appropriate, but should avoid title-style capitalization in general usage within the body of a document. As a subtitle, it is most effective when used on a second line.

Correct

  • Norwich University
  • Military College of the State of Vermont [or, Military College of Vermont]

Incorrect

  • Norwich University, the Military College of the State of Vermont, has been awarded…

The acronym MCV should be used only in a document discussing the Legislature’s designation, and after the acronym is explained in the first reference.

Correct

  • The Legislature first addressed a motion to have Norwich University recognized as the Military College of Vermont [MCV] in the year…

Incorrect

  • Norwich University MCV trustees voted today …

Military titles
Although the different military branches use their own abbreviations to signify rank and position, Norwich uses a single style to maintain consistency and clarity for non-military readers. Use the abbreviations below for communications addressed to the public and university community. Be sure to specify the correct military branch before the title.

Use branch-specific styles when the audience is military, and circumstances require a personal touch. Examples may include person-to-person correspondence, accolades and published letters from alumni. When in doubt, Norwich style is preferable.

As with all titles, capitalize when used before a name and lowercase in other references. Generally, use the formal title in the first reference for all active members of the military, and their surname in subsequent references.

Examples:

Army Lt. Col. Boris Schmeckis
The captain reported to the lieutenant colonel.
Schmeckis, a former lieutenant colonel in the Army…

*Army Commissioned Officers

  • General – Gen.
  • Lieutenant General – Lt. Gen.
  • Major General – Maj. Gen.
  • Brigadier General – Brig. Gen.
  • Colonel – Col.
  • Lieutenant Colonel – Lt. Col.
  • Major – Maj.
  • Captain – Capt.
  • First Lieutenant – 1st Lt.
  • Second Lieutenant – 2nd Lt.

Warrant Officers

  • Chief Warrant Officer – Chief Warrant Officer
  • Warrant Officer – Warrant Officer

Enlisted Personnel

  • Sergeant Major of the Army – Sgt. Maj. of the Army
  • Command Sergeant Major – Command Sgt. Maj.
  • Sergeant Major – Sgt.Maj.
  • First Sergeant – 1st Sgt.
  • Master Sergeant – Master Sgt.
  • Sergeant First Class – Sgt. 1st Class
  • Staff Sergeant – Staff Sgt.
  • Sergeant – Sgt.
  • Corporal – Cpl.
  • Specialist – Spc.
  • Private First Class – Pfc.
  • Private – Pvt.

*Navy, Coast Guard Commissioned Officers

  • Admiral – Adm.
  • Vice Admiral – Vice Adm.
  • Rear Admiral (upper and lower half) – Rear Adm.
  • Captain – Capt.
  • Commander – Cmdr.
  • Lieutenant Commander – Lt. Cmdr.
  • Lieutenant – Lt.
  • Lieutenant Junior Grade – Lt. j.g.
  • Ensign – Ensign

Warrant Officers

  • Chief Warrant Officer – Chief Warrant Officer
  • Warrant Officer – Warrant Officer

Enlisted Personnel

  • Master Chief – Master Chief
  • Petty Officer of the Navy – Petty Officer of the Navy
  • Senior Chief Petty Officer – Senior Chief Petty Officer
  • Chief Petty Officer – Chief Petty Officer
  • Petty Officer First Class – Petty Officer 1st Class
  • Petty Officer Second Class – Petty Officer 2nd Class
  • Petty Officer Third Class – Petty Officer 3rd Class
  • Seaman – Seaman
  • Seaman Apprentice – Seaman Apprentice
  • Seaman Recruit – Seaman Recruit

*Marine Corps Commissioned Officers
Same as those used for the Army

Warrant Officers
Same as those used for the Navy

Enlisted Personnel

  • Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps – Sgt. Maj. of the Marine Corps
  • Master Gunnery Sergeant – Master Gunnery Sgt.
  • Master Sergeant – Master Sgt.
  • First Sergeant – 1st Sgt.
  • Gunnery Sergeant – Gunnery Sgt.
  • Staff Sergeant – Staff Sgt.
  • Corporal – Cpl.
  • Lance Corporal – Lance Cpl.
  • Private First Class – Pfc.
  • Private – Pvt.

*Air Force Commissioned Officers
Same as those used for the Army

Enlisted Personnel

  • Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force – Chief Master Sgt. of the Air Force
  • Chief Master Sergeant – Chief Master Sgt.
  • Senior Master Sergeant – Senior Master Sgt.
  • Technical Sergeant – Tech. Sgt.
  • Staff Sergeant – Staff Sgt.
  • Sergeant – Sgt.
  • Senior Airman – Senior Airman
  • Airman First Class – Airman 1st Class
  • Airman – Airman
  • Airman Basic – Airman

Plurals – Add “s” to the principal element in the title: Sgts. Bilco and Slaughter
Retired – Do not use the military abbreviation for retired military officers (Ret.). Instead, use retired before the officer’s title. Retired Army Gen. Jim Baker attended the event.

Money
Use the dollar sign and numbers. For round numbers, the decimal and zeros are dropped. For amounts beyond thousands, use the dollar sign, number and appropriate word. Do not add the word “dollars” after the numbers. Spell out “cents” when writing amounts under $1.

  • 25 cents
  • $25
  • $25.50
  • $10 million
  • $1.6 million

N

Numbers
Spell out whole numbers less than 10 and any number beginning a sentence. Use numerals for whole numbers 10 and greater, sporting event scores, ages, credits/credit hours, dimensions and measurements. When several numbers occur in within a paragraph or series of paragraphs, maintain consistency in the immediate context (example: The room had four civilian students and twelve cadets inside.)

  • Seventy-five cadets ran across campus.
  • There are 1,000 dogs running wild on the campus.
  • Eighteen nineteen was marked by the founding of Norwich University.
  • The year 1819 was marked by the founding of Norwich University.
  • The Cadets defeated the Catamounts, 54 to 3.

Casual use: Spell out casual expressions:

  • The UP is about a quarter of a mile from here.
  • I can think of a million reasons not to do that.

Large numbers: When large numbers must be spelled out, use a hyphen to connect a word ending in “y” to another word; do not use commas between other separate words that are part of one number:

  • twenty
  • twenty-one
  • one hundred fifty-seven
  • one thousand one hundred fifty-seven

P

Possessives

  • Plural nouns not ending in S: Add ’s — The women’s choir, the alumni’s gifts
  • Plural nouns ending in S: Add only an apostrophe — The horses’ hoofs, the kids’ play area
  • Singular nouns not ending in S: Add ’s — The boy’s chair, the woman’s hat. For words ending in sounds similar to “s,” use ’s: box’s capacity, the justice’s orders
  • Singular common nouns ending in S: Add ’s unless the following word begins with the “s” sound — The hostess’s cupcakes, the hostess’ sweater
  • Singular proper names ending in S: Add only an apostrophe — Confucius’ teachings, Hank Williams’ songs
  • Joint/individual possession: Use the possessive after the last word if the object is jointly owned — Jay and Dave’s office, Mark and Mark’s donuts

Use the possessive form in both words if the objects are individually owned — Ben’s and Julie’s books, Kara’s and Felicia’s tests

Professor
Capitalize and abbreviate the title when used as a title preceding a name; use lowercase and spell out when the title follows the name.

  • Incorrect: Jack Johnson, Professor of mathematics, was at the meeting.
  • Incorrect: They were introduced by Professor Jack Johnson.
  • Correct: Jack Johnson, professor of mathematics, was at the meeting.
  • Correct: They were introduced by Prof. Jack Johnson.

R

Rook
Lowercase: The rooks were called to attention.

Rook Week
Capitalize this event.

Room names
Capitalize formal room names: Board of Trustees Room, Galloway Room

S

Seasons of the year
Lowercase in general usage.

Serial commas
Do not use serial commas before the final item in a series except when clarity dictates usage.

  • Incorrect: Dave went to The Mill for coffee, cookies, and sundries.
  • Correct: Dave went to The Mill for coffee, cookies and sundries

Spaces
Use single spaces following punctuation such as periods, question marks, colons, etc. The double space format, initially used in the time of typewriters, is now obsolete.

States and territories
The names of U.S. states, territories and possessions are spelled out when standing alone. When following the name of a town or city, use the formal abbreviations, i.e. Massachusetts — Mass., Vermont — Vt. The capitalized two letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviations should only be used when a full mailing address is provided. CMS 15–29 lists both forms of abbreviation for U.S. states. Alaska, Hawaii, Iowa, Idaho, Maine, Ohio and Utah are never abbreviated except when used in mailing addresses.

List of US states and abbreviations

AK — Alaska
AL — Alabama — Ala.
AR — Arkansas — Ark.
AS — American Samoa
AZ — Arizona — Ariz.
CA — California — Calif.
CO — Colorado — Colo.
CT — Connecticut — Conn.
DC — Washington D.C.
DE — Delaware — Del.
FL — Florida — Fla.
GA — Georgia — Ga.
GU — Guam
HI — Hawaii
IA — Iowa
ID — Idaho
IL — Illinois — Ill.
IN — Indiana — Ind.
KS — Kansas — Kans.
KY — Kentucky — Ky.
LA — Louisiana — La.
MA — Massachusetts — Mass.
MD — Maryland — Md.
ME — Maine
MI — Michigan — Mich.
MN — Minnesota — Minn.
MO — Missouri — Mo.
MS — Mississippi — Miss.
MT — Montana — Mont.
NC — North Carolina — N.C.
ND — North Dakota — N.D.
NE — Nebraska — Nebr.
NH — New Hampshire — N.H.
NJ — New Jersey — N.J.
NM — New Mexico — N.Mex.
NV — Nevada — Nev.
NY — New York — N.Y.
OH — Ohio
OK — Oklahoma — Okla.
OR — Oregon — Oreg.
PA — Pennsylvania — Pa.
PR — Puerto Rico — P.R.
RI — Rhode Island — R.I.
SC — South Carolina — S.C.
SD — South Dakota — S.D.
TN — Tennessee — Tenn.
TX — Texas — Tex.
UT — Utah
VA — Virginia — Va.
VI — Virgin Islands — V.I.
VT — Vermont — Vt.
WA — Washington — Wash.
WI — Wisconsin — Wisc.
WV — West Virginia — W.Va.
WY — Wyoming — Wyo.

List of cities that can stand alone:

  • Atlanta
  • Baltimore
  • Boston
  • Chicago
  • Cincinnati
  • Cleveland
  • Dallas
  • Denver
  • Detroit
  • Honolulu
  • Houston
  • Las Vegas
  • Los Angeles
  • Miami
  • Milwaukee
  • Minneapolis
  • New Orleans
  • New York
  • Oklahoma City
  • Philadelphia
  • Phoenix
  • Pittsburgh
  • St. Louis
  • Salt Lake City
  • San Antonio
  • San Diego
  • San Francisco
  • Seattle
  • Washington

Student classifications
Use first-year student instead of freshman. Do not capitalize first-year student, sophomore, junior or senior. When referring to a specific class, capitalize “Class” and use an apostrophe in place of the century; Class of ’08, Class of ’56. When referring to classes from the from 1920 or earlier, use the full year: Class of 1898, Class of 1912.

T

Time
Time designation should be written in 12-hour format with a.m. or p.m. as the morning/afternoon indicator. Do not use AM, PM, A.M. or P.M. If the time falls on the hour, the colon and zeros can be omitted. Use noon or midnight without the 12 before instead of 12 p.m. and 12 a.m. Avoid redundancies such as 8 a.m. in the morning. The Corps of Cadets should continue to use the 24-hour format in Corps-specific communications.

  • 4:30 p.m.
  • 4 p.m.

Time, Date & Location
Generally list in this order: 10 a.m. Monday, June 24, 2013, Jackman Hall (provide a street address if intended for an external audience). For invitations, you may want to put the time at the end: Monday, June 24, 2013, at 4 o’clock.

Titles
Italicize the titles of books, magazines and other complete works. Parts of the works, such as chapters and articles, are enclosed in quotes.

  • The Office of Communications follows The Chicago Manual of Style and relies on “Section 15” for guidelines governing abbreviations and acronyms.
  • The Handbook of Common English Usage includes an essay, “Just what the heck are these commas for, anyway?” by Norwich Prof. Hortense Alphonse.

U

University
Capitalize only in formal usage.

  • Norwich University is located in Northfield, Vt. It is a university with a military history.

W

Web addresses
It is not necessary to include the http:// when writing web addresses. Rather, use www.norwich.edu.

Web specific terms

  • Email is one word and should not be capitalized unless used at the start of a sentence.
  • Homepage is one word and should not be capitalized unless at the start of a sentence.
  • HTML and other computer languages (XML, Perl, Java) are capitalized both in acronym form or spelled out, Hypertext Markup Language.
  • Internet is a proper noun and is capitalized. “The web” may be used informally, and should not be capitalized.
  • Online is one word and should not capitalized unless at the start of a sentence.
  • Podcast is one word and should not capitalized unless at the start of a sentence.
  • World Wide Web is a proper noun and is capitalized. Although the word web is often used as shorthand for the World Wide Web, context usually clarifies it’s meaning and therefore capitalization is not necessary.
  • Website is one word and should not capitalized unless it is used at the start of a sentence.
  • Web page is two words, both lowercased unless used at the beginning of a sentence.
  • Webcast is one word and should not capitalized unless used at the start of a sentence.
  • Webcam is one word and should not capitalized unless used at the start of a sentence.
  • Weblog is one word and lowercase. Preferred use is blog.